#1.Austro-Hungarian forts in Mamula and Arza
The Mamula Island is in the Adriatic Sea at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and is dominated by a circular shaped fort that was built in 1853. General Lazar Mamula was responsible for erecting this fort as well as the Arza fort on the Cape of Mirište. Mamula was a general in the Austro-Hungarian army. In the 2nd world war this island fort was used as a cruel concentration camp.
For years the ruins of this fort was unused and stood empty. At present the fort is being renovated and turned into a luxury holiday resort that will retain the shape and materials of the original structures but little else. The Arza fort is a taller and smaller circular structure on an island on the Cape of Mirište. It too is an example of the Austro-Hungarian architecture. With its circular structure it guaranteed a 360-degree view of the sea.
Both of these forts can be seen from Žanjica Bay on the Luštica peninsula.
Risan was occupied by the Romans from the 1st to the 4th centuries AD. One of the constructions erected by the Romans at this time was a villa with elaborate mosaic decorations. These mosaics were discovered as far back as the 1800s and in the early 1900s Risan was transformed into an archaeological site where a complex covering 790m² with five rooms was uncovered. The ruins and the mosaic decorations were conserved and put on display. Further mosaics were discovered in 2004.
Today there is a museum in Risan dedicated to displaying all the artifacts that were discovered during these extensive excavations.
Trašte is a fort that was built by the Austro-Hungarian empire on top of Grabovac Hill. Unlike the island forts this one is rectangular-shaped. It was built on this hill in the early 1900s and overlooks the Bay of Trašte and Tivatsko Polje. It was built to protect a strategic route between Budva, Kotor and Tivat. With the introduction of powerful and long range artillery guns this fort played a pivotal role in protecting the area against any attack by sea or from the mountains.
The fort was bombed during World War I but was not destroyed. It was, however, abandoned in 1918 and never used again. The ruins and certain moving parts have remained and are now a tourist attraction, although not a popular one therefore nothing has been renovated or modernized.